**Problem 1A-11***:** Horizontal Spring With Friction

Similar set up as in Problem 1A-10, but now there is friction between the surface and the block. The equation of motion becomes

Suppose the block is moved to an initial position x

(a) Determine x(t), v(t) and a(t).

(b) Draw graphs for x(t) and v(t).

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**Solution:**

(a)The equation of motion

as the general solution. We can demonstrate this by substituting Eq.(2) into Eq.(1). To simplify the calculation, we define

Since

we have

Substituting Eq.(3A) and Eq.(3B) into Eq.(1), we get

Substituting Eq.(2) and Eq.(3) into Eq.(4), dividing out the term e

Since sin(ωt) and cos(ωt) are independent for an arbitrary t, to let the above equation hold for all t, we must have

For C and D to have non-trivial solutions, we must have

Both terms on the left-hand side of the above equation are positive or zero, so to satisfy the equation we must have

Using the initial condition x(0) = x_{0}and Eq.(2), we get D = x_{0}. The condition of gently releasing the block at t = 0 implies

v(0) = 0. Thus from v(t) = dx/dt and Eq.(3A), we getWith C and D determined, we can summarize the results as(b) To plot the graph of x(t), the form of x(t) as presented above is not convenient; with the superposition of a sine function and a cosine function it is difficult to see the properties of the function clearly. We make the following modification to x(t), leading to the introduction of the phase angle. We define

Then we can write x(t) asIt is always possible to find a ω_{0}such that it satisfies the following relations:With this introduction of ω_{0}, we can writeThis ω_{0}is called the phase angle and plays the role of shifting the curve sin(ωt) by an amount of t = ω_{0}/ω toward the right along the t axis. In the following plot of x(t) vs. t, we setIn the following plot of v(t) vs. t for x_{0}> 0, we set

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